Initiative & Referendum Institute

at the University of Southern California 

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2015 Election


     Voters will decide 28 ballot propositions across nine states in 2015.

Election Results 2015 (BW 2015-2) (Updated 11/9/2015)

Election Preview 2015 (BW 2015-1)


Historical overview of state-level initiatives in the United States: IRI Report on Initiative Use, 1900-2012

For additional nonpartisan information on ballot propositions, see Ballotpedia and the National Conference of State Legislatures.

Please direct media inquiries to Gilien Silsby, Director of Public Relations, (213) 740-9690 (office), (213) 500-8673 (cell),


Select a state on the map below to view information on the state's political history and a link to the state's election division.


Initiative & Referendum States



Local Initiatives and Referendums


For information on local land and environmental ballot measures see Land Trust Alliance. For local transportation related ballot measures see the Center for Transportation Excellence.



International Initiatives and Referendums


For information on ballot measures in other countries, visit Initiative and Referendum Institute-Europe and the Center for Research on Direct Democracy




2014 Election

Election Results 2014 (BW 2014-2)

Election Preview 2014 (BW 2014-1)



2013 Election


Election Results 2013 (BW 2013-1)




2012 Election

Election Results 2012 (BW 2012-3)

 Election Preview 2012 (BW 2012-2)

IRI Report on Same-Sex Marriage Propositions (BW 2012-1)




2011 Election

Election Results 2011 (BW 2011-2)

Election Preview 2011 (BW 2011-1)




2010 Election


Bond Propositions (BW 2010-3)


Election Results 2010 (BW 2010-2)


Election Preview 2010 (BW 2010-1)



2009 Election


Election Results 2009 (BW 2009-2)


Election Preview 2009 (BW 2009-1)



2008 Election


Election Results 2008 (BW 2008-4)


Same-Sex Marriage (BW 2008-2) [Updated version BW 2012-1]


Election Preview 2008 (BW 2008-1)


Through a Planner's Lens (State Resource Strategies)




2007 Election


Election Results 2007 (BW 2007-2)


Election Preview 2007 (BW 2007-1)


Report on Constitutional Amendments (IRI Report 2006-3)




2006 Election


Election Results 2006 (BW 2006-5)


Tobacco-related ballot measures (BW 2006-4)


Election Preview 2006 (BW 2006-3)


IRI report on how ballot propositions may spill over onto candidate elections (IRI Report 2006-2)


IRI statement on Florida constitutional amendments

IRI report on constitutional amendments (IRI Report 2006-2)



2005 Election


Election Results 2005 (BW 2005-3)

Election Preview 2005 (BW 2005-2)


California Special Election

Democracy on the Brink: Nov. 1 Conference

Report on California Special Election (BW 2005-1)

Propositions in Detail

Report on Redistricting in California (IRI Report 2005-1)

Article: "Have Initiatives Paralyzed the California Budget Process?"



2004 Election


Overview of all measures (BW 2004-1)


Marijuana (BW 2004-2)


Seven Worth Watching (BW 2004-3)


The "Long" California Ballot (BW 2004-4)

Gambling (BW 2004-5)


Election Reform (BW 2004-6)


Taxes and Bonds (BW 2004-7)


Marriage (BW 2004-8)


Health Care Costs (BW 2004-9)


Election Preview 2004 (BW 2004-0)


Election Results 2004 (BW 2004-10)


Post-election Report: Environmental Measures (BW 2004-11)



2003 Election


Election Results November 2003


Land Vote 2003


Center for Transportation Excellence - 2003 Transportation Ballot Measures



2002 Election (PDF)


Land Vote 2002


Center for Transportation Excellence - 2002 Transportation Ballot Measures


2002 Ballot Measure Donor Report



2000 Election (PDF)



1998 Election (PDF)



IRI Historical Database


The database lists all statewide initiatives to appear on the ballot since the first statewide initiative in Oregon in 1904.  This list does not contain information on issues placed on the ballot by state legislatures which are commonly referred to as legislative measures. The Institute has only tracked legislative referendums since the 1998 general election and a listing of those ballot measures can be found in the above general election reports. For information on accessing the database, contact John G. Matsusaka, Executive Director,



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2014 Initiative & Referendum Institute

University of Southern California

Los Angeles CA 90089-0071